CONTENTS #11 (November) 2018
TsAGI State Research Center: 100 Years in the Service of the Fatherland (p. 3 – 13)
To the activities of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after Professor N.E. Zhukovsky (TsAGI) is devoted. The main milestones of its history, scientific achievements and contribution to the development of the Russian aviation during the 100 years of its existence are described. The characteristics of the current state of the Institute are given. Areas of advanced research that TsAGI is involved in today are outlined.
Keywords: TsAGI; aviation; aviation science; aviation industry.
Aerodynamics of Passenger Aircraft: Today and Beyond (p. 14 – 29)
A.L. Bolsunovsky, N.P. Buzoverya, S.V. Lyapunov, S.I. Skomorohov, Yu.N. Chernavskikh, I.L. Chernyshev
The problems of the aerodynamic design of wings and other elements of the layout of modern subsonic long-haul aircraft are considered. A description of the general trends in the development of the aerodynamics of aircraft, the applied calculation methods and design techniques, and a number of examples from recent practice are given. Listed are the directions of development for the near future and the tasks that need to be addressed. Promising unconventional configurations of passenger aircraft are viewed briefly.
Keywords: aerodynamic design; supercritical wings; modern subsonic airliners; perspective unconventional aircrafts.
Low Sonic Boom Supersonic Civil Aircraft (p. 30 – 36)
R.V. Zabrodin, S.V. Lyapunov, A.P. Novikov, M.P. Novikov, A.V. Potapov, A.K. Trifonov, V.V. Chedrik, S.L. Chernyshev, A.V. Shenkin, V.G. Yudin, A.A. Babulin, S.A. Vlasov, V.N. Titov
According to preliminary estimates, perspective supersonic civil aircraft (SSCA) sonic boom volume level shouldn’t be more than 72 dBA for flights with some restrictions and 65 dBA for flights without of restrictions. The different appointments SSCA configurations with MTOW volume from 27 to 125 tons are present. The sonic boom loudness estimations and the overpressure shock wave signatures on the ground in the beginning and at the end of cruise supersonic flight are present.
Keywords: supersonic civil aircraft; supersonic civil aircraft demonstrator; sonic boom; sonic boom wave signature; sonic boom loudness.
Research on High-Speed Civil Aircraft Concepts at TsAGI (p. 37 – 49)
V.I. Buzuluk, R.P. Vasilyev, N.V. Voevodenko, A.A. Gubanov, B.I. Gurevich, V.A. Talyzin, S.L. Chernyshev
The review of the main results of TSAGI research on conceptual studies of high-speed civil aircraft designed for cruising flight at speeds corresponding to the Mach numbers Mcr ≥ 5 and the results of the LAPCAT-MR2 concept element-by-element testing within the framework of the inter-national project HEXAFLY-INT of the 7th EU Framework program are presented.
Keywords: high-speed civil aircraft; conceptual studies; element-by-element testing; aerodynamic characteristics; air intake.
Propulsion Systems Aerodynamics of Perspective Low-Noise Civil Aircrafts (p. 50 – 59)
The results of TsAGI research of propulsion system aerodynamics of unconventional configurations with turbofan noise shielding for advanced passenger aircrafts are presented. The results of wind tunnel tests and numerical simulation of propulsion system models installed at the airframe are introduced. Advanced technologies and practical experience of engine-airframe integration with noise shielding are discussed.
Keywords: aerodynamics; propulsion system; unconventional configurations engine-airframe integration; air-intake; jet nozzle; noise shielding.
The Main Milestones in the Development of Acoustic Department of Tsagi Are Considered (p. 60 – 69)
The aircraft ecology issues are discussed and the role of CAEP ICAO in development of more stringent regulations for noise suppression is shown. The main achievements of the Department over the past 50 years and new challenges related to the role of large-scale experiments in the development of new noise reduction technologies are presented.
Keywords: aeroacoustics; anechoic chambers; noise suppression technologies; aircraft noise sources; community noise and cabin noise; international cooperation in aeroacoustics: CRDF; 7th FWP (Seventh Frame Work Programme) EC; Horizon 2020.
Problems of Сreation of Digital Remote Systems of Passenger Aircraft (p. 70 – 76)
S.G. Bazhenov, Yu.I. Didenko, V.L. Sukhanov, Yu.F. Shelyukhin
At present, most aircraft put into operation in the 21st century are equipped with digital remote control systems with a high level of automation. Mass exploitation of digital remote control systems showed their high reliability and safety. Therefore, the next stage in the development of the digital remote control systems was the transition to purely remote systems without a mechanical emergency reserve. In modern digital remote control system has spent two main components: the hardware part and the software part. To date, regulatory documents have been formed and special technical solutions have been developed for each of the parts of the digital remote control system.
Keywords: digital remote control system; reliability; safety; integrated control law; power control system; the ideology of reconfiguration in case of failures; the laws of control of the digital remote control system.
The Management of Science and Technology Creation in Aviation Using Simulation (p. 77 – 86)
A.V. Dutov, K.I. Sypalo, N.B. Toporov
The problems of creating the complex research management system for the formation of a continuously updated scientific and technical resource of in the aircraft industry and creation of simulation complexes for providing decision support in the process of managing the scientific and technological development are discussed. According to the general scheme of formation of applied researches the structure of an operation simulation complex, constructed on the principles of multilevel hierarchy and territorial distribution, and based on the centers of competence of various fields of aviation applied science is offered.
Keywords: decision support complex; operation simulation complex; complex organizationally technical system; development of the aviation.
Development of Airframe Structural Strength Research Methods (p. 87 – 105)
M.Ch. Zichenkov, A.S. Dzuba, S.V. Dubinskiy, M.V. Limonin, S.Е. Paryshev, A.V. Pankov
Considered are the main tasks within the competences of TsAGI Structural Strength Research Center and the achieved results including the development of aircraft structural strength regulations and computational strength analysis methods to solve the problems of airframe analysis and design synthesis, support and development of versatile experimental facilities, аnalytical and experimental research on static, thermal and fatigue strength, aeroelastic and dynamic structural stability, operational loads, еxperts’ evaluation of Russian aircraft projects with respect to the structure, participation in certification process and life cycle airworthiness support & prognosis of the airframe structure priority areas development.
Keywords: strength; service life; aeroelasticity; flutter; computational strength; MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization); laminated composite materials; stress test; fatigue test; climatic test; certification; life cycle; loads monitoring.
New Generation Hybrid Aircraft for Advanced Civil Aircraft
(p. 106 – 114)
M.Ch. Zichenkov, A.N. Shanygin
The results of the investigations on development of the new generation of metal-composite (hybrid) airframes for perspective civil aircrafts. Numerical substantiation of strength and weight efficiency of hybrid structure layouts of the new generation based on lattice and frame composite structures for high-loaded primary structure parts of wing and fuselage.
Keywords: гhybrid airframes; weight efficiency; composite laminates; structure layouts.
New Approach to Uas Airworthiness Requirements to Ensure Flight Safety in Non-Segregated Airspace (p. 115 – 126)
V.L. Soukhanov, V.M. Shibaev
Critical factors in unmanned aircraft systems development and operation, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles) classification, airworthiness evaluation stages for test and demo flight and criteria to extend airworthiness certificate for flight and demo flights.
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV); unmanned aircraft systems (UAS); UAV classification; safety criteria; airworthiness.
Tsagi Research in the Field of Industrial Aerodynamics (p. 127 – 139)
L.A. Maslov, S.A. Sustin
The scientific directions of industrial aerodynamics and low-speed aerodynamics in the original structure of TsAGI are presented. The historical and scientific and technical development of industrial aerodynamics and aerodynamics of low speeds is shown. The achievements and objects of industrial aerodynamics in machine building, power engineering, construction, as well as in the study of internal currents in channels and external currents on the surfaces of structures and mechanisms are presented. The significant contribution of TsAGI scientific schools to development of methods of calculation and design in solving practical problems of industrial aerodynamics and aerodynamics of low speeds is shown.
Keywords: fan; wind power plant; aerodynamics of jets and tracks; external aerodynamics of buildings and structures; airship; submarine; helicopter landing site; take-off and landing safety.
Multifunctional Pressure Probes in Modern and Perspective Aviation Technique (p. 140 – 152)
A.V. Vialkov, M.A. Golovkin, A.A. Efremov, V.V. Sysoev
The analysis of high accuracy, reliable and fail protected air data measurements based on the multifunctional pressure probes aimed for using at the aircrafts of different types is presented. The examples of air data systems for civil airliner, maneuver aircraft and helicopter are given.
Keywords: multifunctional pressure probe; air data parameters; aerodynamics characteristics; aircraft.
Modern Set of Aerodynamic Models Supporting the Development of Narrowbody Commercial Passenger Aircraft (p. 153 – 160)
V.D. Vermel, Yu.Yu. Evdokimov, S.I. Skomorohov, I.L. Chernyshev, L.L. Chernyshev, A.O. Shardin
A set of aerodynamic models developed and manufactured for experimental research in ensuring the development of aerodynamic configurations for narrowbody commercial passenger aircraft is considered. The principal design of aerodynamic models for different functional purpose is presented.
Keywords: aerodynamic test; aerodynamic models; aerodynamic and dynamic similarity to simulated aircraft; measurement of aerodynamic forces and moments; pressure distribution; non-stationary aerodynamic characteristics; free spin; software and manual control system for the aerodynamic model.